BATALLA DE MOSCU CRONOLOGIA
21 Jul 1941 127 bombarderos de la Luftwaffe alemana despegaron de un campo de aviación cerca de Smolensk, Rusia para atacar la capital soviética de Moscú en múltiples olas durante la noche; las alarmas sonaron por primera vez en la ciudad de . Moscú que tenía fuertes defensas antiaéreas y los ciudadanos fueron capaces de tomar refugio en las estaciones de metro terminadas, pero las tripulaciones aéreas alemanas reportó la presencia de muy pocos combatientes aereos de la noche soviéticas.
27 Sep 1941 el Soviet GKO emitió la Directiva para organizar la defensa estratégica, que resultó ser desastroso, ya que llevó a más de 50 divisiones de tropas soviéticas siendo atrapados en Vyazma y Bryansk en Rusia poco después.
30 Sep 1941 L a Operación Tifón alemán consiguió un comienzo no oficial cuando Panzer de Guderian Gruppe 2 atacado dos días antes que el resto de la operación.
2 Oct 1941 El resto del grupo de Ejércitos Centro alemán puso en marcha la Operación Tifón, el ataque a Moscú, Rusia. Mientras tanto, el Panzergruppe alemán 2 al mando del general Guderian se dividió en dos pinzas en Sevsk, Rusia; la pinza norte se movió hacia Bryansk mientras que la pinza noreste movió hacia Orel.
3 Oct 1941 En Rusia, Panzergruppe 2 del grupo de ejércitos Centro alemán captura Orel a 220 millas al suroeste de Moscú. En otros lugares, las tropas alemanas intentaron rodear el Frente Soviético de Bryansk Soviética.
4 Oct 1941 El Panzergruppe 3 y 4 Panzergruppe Alemán empezaron a rodear a los elementos posteriores del frente occidental soviética en Rusia, la captura de Kirov y Spa-Demensk en el proceso. Las tropas alemanas continuaron avanzando hacia Vyasma para completar el envolvimiento de la bolsa
5 Oct 1941 Las principales formaciones alemanas informaron de que estaban a unos 100 kilómetros de Moscú, Rusia. El mismo día, los combatientes soviéticos estacionados en Moscú descubrieron vehículos alemanes tan cerca como 50 kilómetros de Moscú; cuando el jefe del Comando de combate de la Fuerza Aérea de Moscú Distrito Militar Nikolai Sbytov informó de esto a sus supeiors, fue investigado por el NKVD para la difusión de falsos rumores, pero tuvo la suerte de que Stalin le creyó. Por precaución, Stalin ordenó el frente occidental Soviética a retirarse a Viazma para formar una nueva línea defensiva bajo un nuevo oficial al mando, Georgy Zhukov, en sustitución de Iván Konev
6 Oct 1941 8 Ejércitos Soviéticos son rodeados en Bryansk and Vyazma, con una maniobra sorpresa del 17 th Panzer Division alemana. En dos semanas los alemanes han tomado cerca de 700,000 prisioreros y han destruido o capturado cerca de 1.200 tanques y y 5,000 cañones
7 Oct 1941 El 10th Panzer Division captura Vyasma, rodeando 5 ejércitos Soviéticos
10 Oct 1941 El 32nd Rifle Division Soviética empieza a llegar a Mozhaysk, al oeste de la capital rusa, Moscú desde Siberia. Más al oeste . en Gzhatsk , Smolensk Oblast, 40millas al oeste de Mozhaysk y 32 milllas al este de Vyasma, Las brigadas de tanques Soviéticas 18th y 19th Tank paran una ofensiva soviética. La 4th panzer Division alcanza Mtsensk, pero se establecerá ahí por muchos dias por la gran resistencia soviética
11 Oct 1941 Millares de población dejan la cuidad de Moscú por los rumores de la inminente captura alemana de la capital.
12 Oct 1941 Las tropas alemanas capturan Bryansk y Kaluga
13 Oct 1941 Las tropas alemanas capturan Kalinin (now Tver) y Rzhev al noroeste de Moscú; El 30th ejército es rodeado y destruido en Rzhev .Al oeste de Mocú, las brigadas de tanques 18 y 19 tienen que retroceder desde Gzhatsk (ahora Gagarin) hacia Mozhaysk 30 kilómetros mas cerca de Moscú donde se había contruido la nueva linea defensiva.
14 Oct 1941 The Soviet troops in the Bryansk pocket in Russia were eliminated (50,000 captured), while the Vyazma pocket was within days of the same fate. In Berlin, Germany, Adolf Hitler ordered that the Soviet capital of Moscow was to be enveloped, not attacked directly. Meanwhile, in Moscow, Joseph Stalin briefed 23 senior Soviet military and civilian officials between 1530 and 1815 hours on a plan to evacuate the city in an orderly fashion; he ordered four theater groups (Lenin State Theater, Maxim Gorkiy Artistic Academic Theater, Little Academic Theater, and Vakhtangov Theater) to be evacuated first.
15 Oct 1941 In Russia, German 1st Panzer Division turned northwest, thus away from Moscow, to attack Soviet Northwestern Front from the rear. The Soviet GKO ordered the NKVD, various agencies, and various foreign legations to evacuate from Moscow to Kuibyshev (now Samara).
16 Oct 1941 Tanks of SS Reich Division and 10th Panzer Division attacked the Mozhaysk Line at Borodino, Russia 125 kilometers west of the Soviet capital of Moscow; lacking infantry support, Soviet troops halted the attacks. While thousands of civilians continued to flee the city, the Soviet government and diplomatic corps moved to Kuibyshev 1,500 miles to the east; Joseph Stalin, however, chose to stay.
17 Oct 1941 German SS Reich and 10th Panzer Divisions made slow advances along the Moscow Highway and Minsk Highway toward the Soviet capital of Moscow, Russia. The Soviet 5th Army slowly fell back toward Mozhaysk, Russia.
18 Oct 1941 German SS Reich and 10th Panzer Divisions captured Mozhaysk, Russia. In the evening, a motorcycle battalion of SS Reich Division found the Minsk Highway toward Moscow, Russia, 90 kilometers to the east, undefended.
19 Oct 1941 German troops defeated the Soviet forces within the Vyazma pocket in Russia and captured 670,000 men, 1,000 tanks, and 4,000 artillery pieces. At Volokolamsk, the northwest end of the Mozhaysk defensive line, newly arrived Soviet 316th Rifle Division halted the attack by German 4th Panzer Army. In Moscow, Lavrentiy Beria advised the Soviet GKO to evacuate the capital "or they will strangle us like chickens", but it was rejected by Joseph Stalin; however, Stalin did order the Politburo (less Stalin, Beria, and Georgy Malenkov) to evacuate.
22 Oct 1941 German Panzergruppe 2, resupplied with fuel and ammunition, continued the northeastward advance on Moscow, Russia. German 4th Panzer Division resumed the attack on Mtsensk, Russia.
23 Oct 1941 The 3rd Panzer Division of the German Panzergruppe 2 outflanked Soviet troops at Mtensk, Russia, 100 kilometers south of Moscow.
24 Oct 1941 Elements of the German 4th Panzer Division moved from Mtsensk, Russia northward toward Moscow, reaching Chern 20 kilometers away.
27 Oct 1941 Soviet forces launched multiple counter-attacks around Moscow, Russia, trying to blunt the German advance. German troops were now positioned in the west at Volokolamsk 60 kilometers from Moscow and in the south at Plavsk 110 kilometers from Moscow.
28 Oct 1941 The Soviet Military Collegium evacuated Moscow, Russia for Chkalov (now Orenburg), Russia.
29 Oct 1941 Kampfgruppe Eberbach of German 4th Panzer Division reached Tula, Russia, which was about 110 kilometers south of Moscow. The group dug in near Tula to organize an offensive in the next day.
30 Oct 1941 In Russia, Kampfgruppe Eberbach of German 4th Panzer Division began to advance north from Tula toward Moscow at 0530 hours; it was soon turned back by heavy anti-tank fire. Another attempt was made at 1000 hours, again at 1300 hours, and a final time at 1600 hours, inflicting heavy casualties on the Soviets but failing to break through. During the night, Soviet 32nd Tank Brigade arrived to reinforce Tula, while the German troops began to feel the cold Russian winter.
German Soldiers with MG34 on guard
3 Nov 1941 In Russia, German Panzer Army 2 attacked Tula while other German units captured Kursk 180 miles to the southwest to protect the southern flank of the assault toward Moscow.
6 Nov 1941 Frostbite began to make its appearance among German troops fighting in the Soviet Union.
7 Nov 1941 Stalin made a speech during the October Revolution anniversary celebration predicting that even though German troops were less than 100 miles from Moscow, they were facing disaster. Meanwhile, in Berlin, the German Army High Command (OKH) was determined to continue the advance on Moscow in spite of up to 80 Soviet Army divisions in front of them.
12 Nov 1941 After sundown, the temperature in the Moscow region of Russia dropped to 5 degrees Fahrenheit or -15 degrees Celsius, which was harsh on the troops on either side, but particularly to the Germans who were less prepared to deal with the weather. The vehicles that had not been frozen, however, were now able to move as the mud hardened, and the 3rd and 4th Panzer Armies prepared to take advantage of the situation for an offensive. Meanwhile, 22 infantry divisions, 14 cavalry divisions, and 11 ski battalions began to arrive to reinforce the Soviet capital.
13 Nov 1941 German troops fighting near Moscow, Russia were fighting temperatures as low as -8° F (-22° C). As the mud freezes, however, the Germans prepared for a new offensive amidst increasing casualties due to weather.
15 Nov 1941 German Panzergruppen 1, 2, and 3, with 2, 4, and 9.Armeen, resumed the attack on Moscow, Russia. Soviet 30th Army was pushed back from the Volga Reservoir and Moscow Sea Reservoir areas 75 miles north of Moscow.
16 Nov 1941 German 3rd Panzer Party established a crossing over the Lama River 70 miles west of Moscow, Russia.
17 Nov 1941 German troops near Moscow, Russia fought Central Asian troops for the first time (Soviet 44th Cavalry Division) at Musino, Russia, 70 miles west of the capital. German artillery blunted the cavalry charges, with the Germans claiming 2,000 killed.
18 Nov 1941 German 4th Panzer Army launched a 400-tank attack 70 miles west of Moscow, Russia, supported by 3 infantry divisions; Soviet 30th Army fell back northward to Klin, while Soviet 16th Army was pushed south to Istra. 120 miles south of Moscow, German 3rd Panzer Army was held up at Tula, with its latest attempt to surround the Soviet garrison there foiled by the newly-arrived Soviet 413th Rifle Division.
19 Nov 1941 Franz Halder noted in his diary that, in a meeting Adolf Hitler held with his top military leaders on this date, Hitler no longer talked about ending the war in 1941; instead, plans for Soviet targets east of Moscow, Russia were made for spring and summer of 1942. Meanwhile, 70 miles west of Moscow, German 4th Panzer Army attempted to penetrate the gap between the Soviet 30th and 16th Armies which were pushed back on the previous day, but stubborn Soviet resistance slowed the German advance in the area of Istra.
20 Nov 1941 German troops captured Rostov, Russia.
23 Nov 1941 German forces captured Solnechnogorsk, Russia advanced to within 35 miles of the Soviet capital of Moscow.
24 Nov 1941 Elements of German LVI Panzer Corps captured Rogachevo, Russia, north of Moscow. To the south of the Soviet capital, XXIV Panzer Corps captured the road junction at Venyov 30 miles east of Tula.
25 Nov 1941 German 2nd Panzer Division was halted by British-built Matilda tanks of the Soviet 146th Tank Brigade at Peshki, 35 miles northwest of Moscow. 30 miles west of Moscow, German 10th Panzer Division and SS Reich Division attacked Istra, which was being defended by Soviet 78th Rifle Division. Finally, German XXIV Panzer Corps launched a new attack 100 miles south of Moscow, cutting the rail line to Moscow near Tula.
26 Nov 1941 Soviet troops re-opened the Tula-Moscow rail line in Russia.
27 Nov 1941 In Russia, German SS Reich Division captured Istra west of Moscow while 7th Panzer Division advanced to the Moskva-Volga canal at Yakhroma east of Moscow. The forward-most German troops were reported within 19 miles of the Soviet capital, and noted the sighting of the Kremlin.
28 Nov 1941 German 7th Panzer Division crossed the Yakhroma bridge over the Moskva-Volga canal 37 miles north of Moscow, Russia at 0330 hours, but it would be driven back at the end of the day.
29 Nov 1941 German 7th Panzer Division completed the evacuation of the Yakhroma bridgehead near Moscow, Russia; 45 were killed in the unsuccessful attempt to cross the Moskva-Volga canal.
30 Nov 1941 Elements of German 2nd Panzer Division captured the railway station at Lobnya 19 miles north of Moscow, Russia. Meanwhile, Georgy Zhukov was ordered by Joseph Stalin to organize a counterattack.
German Ski Jagers unit
1 Dec 1941 Three German infantry divisions and one German armored division advanced along the Minsk-Moscow highway, penetrating through the lines of the Soviet 33rd Army, capturing Naro-Fominsk 43 miles southwest of Moscow, Russia.
2 Dec 1941 Motorcycle patrols from the German 2nd Panzer Division at Moscow, Russia reached Khimki and claimed that they were as close as 10 miles northwest from the Kremlin. The 2nd Panzer Division, however, was unable gather enough strength to exploit the weakly defended lines that the reconnaissance troops discovered. To the west, additional Soviet reinforcements reached Naro-Fominsk. To the south of Moscow, another German attack on Tula cut the Tula-Moscow rail line.
3 Dec 1941 German 4th Army was halted at Naro-Fominsk west of Moscow, Russia, thus exposing the flank of the German 2nd Panzer Army, which was assaulting the Tula region south of Moscow.
4 Dec 1941 On the Eastern Front of the European War, temperature dropped to -31 degrees Fahrenheit (-37 degrees Celsius). In this cold weather, Günther von Kluge ordered German Army Group Center to fall to defensive positions.
5 Dec 1941 The Germans canceled Operation Typhoon on this date during which the lowest temperature dropped to -36 degrees Fahrenheit (-38 degrees Celsius). Meanwhile, Soviet General Zhukov launched Konev's Kalinin Front against German forces northwest of Moscow, Russia at 0300 hours, meeting strong resistance. From Germany, Adolf Hitler ordered the transfer of the German 2nd Air Corps from Russia to the Mediterranean Sea region.
6 Dec 1941 Soviet troops launched a counteroffensive in the Moscow region in Russia at 0600 hours. Georg Hans Reinhardt ordered his 3rd Panzer Army to fall back to Klin, while Heinz Guderian's 2nd Panzer Army held the areas near Tula south of Moscow. Field Marshal Fedor von Bock had not yet realized that he was now facing an all-out Soviet counteroffensive.
7 Dec 1941 Soviet 30th Army attacked German 3rd Panzer Army at Klin while Soviet 50th Army attacked German 2nd Panzer Division near Moscow, Russia.
8 Dec 1941 Soviet offensive broke through German Armeegruppe Mitte near Moscow, Russia, cutting the Klin-Kalinin road. German units began making hasty withdrawals to prevent encirclement, abandoning large numbers of immobilized equipment in the process. Adolf Hitler issued Führer Directive 39 which called for German troops to hold their ground.
9 Dec 1941 Soviet 30th Army attacked north of Moscow, Russia, capturing many trucks and field guns abandoned by the German 3rd Panzer Army. South of Moscow, Soviet troops captured Venev and Yelets. Despite the victories, Soviet logistic situation was extremely poor largely due to the destruction of many vehicles at the hands of the Germans in the past few months; for example, Viktor Abakumov reported on this day that on 25 Nov 1941 Soviet 18th Ski Battalion went without any food.
10 Dec 1941 Soviet troops encircled three German divisions at Livny, south of Moscow, Russia.
11 Dec 1941 North of Moscow, Russia, Soviet 16th Army captured Istra while Soviet 20th Army reached Solnechnogorsk. South of Moscow, Soviet troops captured Stalinogorsk.
13 Dec 1941 General Timoshenko's Southwest Front assaulted German lines at junction of 2.Panzergruppe and 2.Armee. 2.Armee withdrew, leaving 2.Panzergruppe's flank unprotected. Feldmarschall von Bock secretly ordered Armeegruppe Mitte to withdraw to a winter line 90 miles west of current positions, without informing Hitler.
14 Dec 1941 Franz Halder and Günther von Kluge gave permission for a limited withdrawal for troops of the Army Group Center (Armeegruppe Mitte) in the Moscow area to the west of the Oka river, without Hitler's approval.
15 Dec 1941 To the north of Moscow, Russia, Soviet tanks cut the road west of Klin; to prevent encirclement, the German 3rd Panzer Army abandoned Klin at 2130 hours and fled to the southwest, abandoning most of its heavy equipment. On the same day, Soviet state offices moved back to Moscow.
16 Dec 1941 Soviet forces captured Kalinin, Russia. The lowest temperature recorded in this region of Russia on this date was -42 degrees Fahrenheit (-41 degrees Celsius).
18 Dec 1941 In Russia, German 3rd Panzer Army and 4th Panzer Army shook off the persuing Soviet forces and reached Lama River and Ruza River, respectively, on their retreat from the Moscow.
19 Dec 1941 Adolf Hitler relieved Walther von Brauchitsch as army commander-in-chief and took over command of the army himself, promising "to educate it to be National Socialist". Among the first orders he issued was the "no retreat" order, condemning thousands of troops to die in position outside of Moscow, Russia, without the chance to maneuver in defense. On the same day, the Soviet Military Collegium, having previously evacuated to Chkalov (now Orenburg), Russia, returned to Moscow.
20 Dec 1941 German Armeegruppe Mitte reached a defensive line 100 kilometers to its west, where it was to stand and fight in accordance with Adolf Hitler's order after Hitler countermanded Franz Halder and Günther von Kluge's order to withdraw six days earlier. On the other side of the line, Soviet troops attacked west from Tula, Russia, aiming for the rail and road junction at Kaluga.
21 Dec 1941 Soviet 31st Cavalry Division attacked Kaluga near Moscow, Russia.
26 Dec 1941 Soviet Kalanin Front attacked German 9th Army northwest of Moscow, Russia, aiming to penetrate between German Army Group North and Army Group Center.
30 Dec 1941 Soviet troops captured Kaluga, Russia near Moscow.
4 Jan 1942 Soviet Army took Kaluga near Moscow, Russia.
8 Jan 1942 Adolf Hitler gave Günther von Kluge the permission to fall back in the Moscow, Russia region. On the same day, the Soviet West Front attacked towards Mozhaysk, Russia west of Moscow, which was defended by troops of German 4th Army.
3 Feb 1942 German forces counterattacked toward Vyazma, encircling several Soviet divisions.